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From this point, Babylonian mathematics merged with Greek and Egyptian mathematics to give rise to Hellenistic mathematics.

Later under the Arab Empire, Iraq/Mesopotamia, especially Baghdad, once again became an important center of study for Islamic mathematics.

The earliest traces of the Babylonian numerals also date back to this period.

The Old Babylonian period is the period to which most of the clay tablets on Babylonian mathematics belong, which is why the mathematics of Mesopotamia is commonly known as Babylonian mathematics.

In contrast to the sparsity of sources in Egyptian mathematics, our knowledge of Babylonian mathematics is derived from more than 400 clay tablets unearthed since the 1850s.

From around 2500 BC onwards, the Sumerians wrote multiplication tables on clay tablets and dealt with geometrical exercises and division problems.of sequences of prime numbers and of Ancient Egyptian multiplication.The Ishango bone consists of a series of tally marks carved in three columns running the length of the bone.Long before the earliest written records, there are drawings that indicate some knowledge of elementary mathematics and of time measurement based on the stars.For example, paleontologists have discovered in a cave in South Africa, ochre rocks about 70,000 years old, adorned with scratched geometric patterns.

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