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The Canadian teenage birth has also trended towards a steady decline for both younger (15-17) and older (18-19) teens in the period between 1992-2002.
In some societies, early marriage and traditional gender roles are important factors in the rate of teenage pregnancy.
Whether fertility leads to early pregnancy depends on a number of factors, both societal and personal.
Worldwide, rates of teenage pregnancy range from 1 in some sub-Saharan African countries to 2. in South Korea.
Reversible longer term methods such as intrauterine devices, subcutaneous implants, or injections (Depo provera, Combined injectable contraceptive), require less frequent user action, lasting from a month to years, and may prevent pregnancy more effectively in women who have trouble following routines, including many young women.
The simultaneous use of more than one contraceptive measure further decreases the risk of unplanned pregnancy, and if one is a condom barrier method, the transmission of sexually transmitted disease is also reduced.
The average age of menarche (first menstrual period) in the United States is 12.5 years old, though this figure varies by ethnicity and weight, and first ovulation occurs only irregularly until after this.
Teenage girls in relationships with older boys, and in particular with adult men, are more likely to become pregnant than teenage girls in relationships with boys their own age.
For these reasons, there have been many studies and campaigns which attempt to uncover the causes and limit the numbers of teenage pregnancies.
A report by Save the Children found that, annually, 13 million children are born to women under age 20 worldwide, more than 90% in developing countries.
The Guttmacher Institute attributed about 25% of the decline to abstinence and 75% to the effective use of contraceptives.
This could imply that teen pregnancy rates are also on the rise, however the rise could also be due to other sources: a possible decrease in the number of abortions or a decrease in the number of miscarriages, to name a few.